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1 year ago

Brackish Na ndash Cl ndash HCO

4.1.3.6. Brackish Na–Cl–HCO3 water types
5. Conclusions
Using a combination of multivariate statistics, assessment of major ion relationships and geochemical modelling the hydrochemical Carminomycin in a large alluvial aquifer, the upper Condamine alluvium in eastern Australia was assessed. The alluvial aquifer is a critical groundwater resource for irrigated agriculture in the area, and it overlies a commercially-viable, shallow coal seam gas (CSG) reserve: as a result recharge processes and alluvium–bedrock connectivity were a focus of this study, particularly the evolution of Na–HCO3 and Na–HCO3–Cl water types and their occurrence in the alluvium.
In general, no relationships were observed between CSG groundwater in the WCM and the alluvial groundwater. Hydrochemical similarities between a shallow alluvial groundwater sample and CSG groundwater identified during the hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were shown to be clustering artefacts caused by the evolution of similar water types via different processes. This highlights the risk associated with the 'Carminomycin' sole application cluster techniques to identify potential aquifer connectivity in CSG-related studies.

1 year ago

Fig xA Validation of the designed

Each of these topics will be separately discussed. The effect of these various microstructural modifications on the SIM Sunitinib in the two alloys will also be identified.
3.1. β solution treatment conditions
Fig. 3. Microstructure in β solution treated condition (900 °C/5 min): (a) Ti–10V–2Cr–3Al, and (b) Ti–10V–1Fe–3Al.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 4. Stress–strain curves of alloys after β solution heat treatment: (a) Ti–10V–2Cr–3Al, and (b) Ti–10V–1Fe–3Al.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
The TEM micrographs of Ti–10V–1Fe–3Al alloy after compression testing are shown in Fig. 5. The microstructure of stress-induced α″ martensite is illustrated. Fig. 5(a) is a dark field TEM micrograph. It can be seen that the formation of this stress-induced orthorhombic phase leads to a structure of nanoscale needles. Fig. 5(b) is a diffraction pattern along the β 〈1 1 3〉 zone axis, the spot corresponding to the α″ martensite is clearly visible. Xu and Marteleur [23] and [24] have found the similar microstructures in other titanium alloys.

1 year ago

Fig xA SEM images of NSB

Table 1 lists the data on the BET surface area, BJH pore diameter, and total pore volumes, and Figs. 4–6 (supporting information) show typical isotherms of NSB, CC and CTC (∼25 and 170 nm). The NSB-25 showed Z-YVAD-FMK fair BET surface area (30 m2/g), total pore volume (0.086 cm3/g) and BJH pore diameter (116 Å). A large increase in the BET surface area was observed (30–82 m2/g) upon the preparation of the carbon cage (CC-25). Consequently, a decrease in the BJH pore diameter from 116 to 58 Å and a tiny rise in total pore volume from 0.086 to 0.120 cm3/g was observed. On the other hand, a small decrease in the BET surface area of 82–69 m2/g, pore volume from 0.120 to 0.107 cm3/g and a small increase in the pore diameter from 58 to 61 Å were observed. This supports the suggested phenomenon of filling the internal pores of CC-25 with tungsten nanoparticles (CTC-25). NSB-170 showed a high BET surface area (163 m2/g), total pore volume (0.290 cm3/g) and BJH pore diameter (71 Å). A large increase in the BET surface area was observed (163–212 m2/g) upon the preparation of CC-170. Consequently, an increase in the BJH pore diameter (from 71 to 162 Å) and total pore volume (from 0.290 to 0.857 cm3/g) were observed. Upon tungsten incorporation in CC-170, however, a small decrease in BET surface area of 212–180 m2/g, pore volume from 0.857 to 0.749 cm3/g and almost unchanged pore diameter from 162 to 161 Å were noticed, suggesting green algae the internal pores of the CC-170 were occupied by the tungsten nanoparticles (CTC-170). This indicates that the structure of the MCNRs had been maintained after modification.

1 year ago

Fig xA Different value of

Fig. 9. Different value of ε for different doping XL335 with doping level (a) x = 0.1, (b) x = 0.2 for f = 115 Hz at 300 K.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
3.3. Optical property
Fig. 10. Optical absorbance spectra for (a) Zn0.9Mn0.1O and (b) Zn0.9Mn0.05Fe0.05O nanoparticles, measured at 300 K. Insets show the derivative plot of absorbance spectra fitted with the Gaussian function, from which the semiconducting band gap is estimated to be Eg = 3.29 eV.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
4. Conclusions
AcknowledgementOne of the authors S.K. Mandal acknowledges the DST Project (No. SR/FTP/PS-019/2012), India for financial support. We acknowledge Dr. A. Nath (NIT Agartala) and IIT Kharagpur, India for providing us some experimental facilities.
Sn-based alloy; Sn–Si–Ti; Phase equilibria; Intermetallic
1. Introduction
Since systematic investigation in the whole composition range of the Sn–Si–Ti system is white blood cell en valuable way for identifying new phases, and phase equilibria can provide helpful knowledge on phase constituents in Sn(and/or Ti)-based alloys, the purpose of the present work is to investigate experimentally the Sn–Si–Ti ternary phase diagram, mainly by the construction of isothermal sections at 900 and 1200 °C.

1 year ago

The X ray diffractogram for

Powders were characterised by TEM. Fig. 7 shows a representative TEM image from the powders milled for 5 h (N8-5) with its corresponding STEM image. EDX spectrum and compositions ATC 0175 shown for two representative phases: a quasicrystalline particle (1) which compositions related to the one reported in literature [5] and [6] and (2) an area in the matrix showing the presence of Al2O3.
Fig. 8 shows representative TEM images for powders milled for 10 h (N8-10). Fig. 8a shows the presence of an IQC particle as verified by the convergent beam diffraction pattern (CBDP) and Fig. 8b shows a general area of the powder particle showing the Al crystallites. The crystallite sizes were measured by drawing a vertical and a horizontal line on each crystallite. The length of the two perpendicular lines crossings each crystallite size was measured and the average value was taken as the size of the particle. About 50 crystallites of each sample were measured to ensure an accurate value. This process was repeated for powders with different milling times. Thus, sex chromosomes was obtained that the crystallite sizes for N8-10 is 81 ± 18 nm and 53 ± 9 nm for N8-15. Both these values are in agreement with the values obtained by the XRD results (Williamson–Hall method) which gave 89 nm and 51 nm respectively (see Fig. 2a).

1 year ago

In this study the increase in

CO2 was only detected in less than 0.6 vol% (Table 4), whereas higher quantities of CO were detected in the pyrolysis-gases (up to 13 vol%), suggesting that Z-YVAD-FMK a significant portion of the CO2 might be converted to form H2 and CO by heterogeneous reactions, such as dehydrogenation (R8) and dry-reforming (R9) reactions that have been reported to be promoted under microwave pyrolysis environment [14] and [15]. Both the concentrations of CO2 and aliphatic hydrocarbons (particularly CH4) were found to decrease when using increased amounts of the metallic-char (Table 4). This supports the proposed increased occurrence of these heterogeneous reactions that had resulted in higher productions of H2 and CO in the pyrolysis-gases.
The results revealed that the increase in the amount of metallic-char added to the waste oil led to a reduction in the subsequent yield of additional char product (Fig. 9), suggesting that a portion of the char product (generated by the decomposition of hydrocarbons, (R1) and (R4)) was converted to H2 and CO by gasification Reaction (R7). These gasification reactions were likely to occur due to the ability of the metallic-char to absorb the microwave energy and heat up, transforming into hot spots and in turn promoting the occurrence of these reactions. These gasification reactions are a few of the heterogeneous reactions that were reported to be highly promoted in microwave pyrolysis systems [14] and [25], and they were found to occur in microwave pyrolysis systems even at low reaction temperatures of 400 and 500 °C [42], thus the yield of char product was reduced in favor of H2 and CO formation.

1 year ago

After the column was completely filled with

After the column was completely filled with water, the water was gravity-drained from the column and collected. The collected water (mp) was then weighed using a balance. The mp was measured repeatedly, and the mean of the measurements was used to calculate the column pore volume (Vp), and the porosity (η) of the quartz sand filled column.equation(a)η=mpρwater×Vp×100%.
The delayed breakthrough of the arsenic in the column relative to the inert fluorescein sodium tracer was represented by the dimensionless retardation factor (R) ( van Halem et al., 2010), which can be calculated as follows:equation(b)RAs=VViAsCC0=0.5VVitracerCC0=0.5where C AY-NH2 the measured value; C0 is the initial value of the injection solution, and the inert tracer is fluorescein sodium. The V/Vi value equals the water volume (V) divided by the column pore volume (Vi).
3. Results and discussion
3.1. Optimal conditions for iron coating
3.1.1. Optimal loading time
The brown color of the coating materials on the surface of quartz sand in Column I gradually darkened over time (Fig. S1). The coloration was relatively uniform in the column at different times, indicating that the iron coating homogeneously formed during injection. The color of the coating materials showed no change, and the Fe content in the outflow water did not decrease significantly after 96 h of loading. In addition, no significant changes in flow rate and injection pressure were observed during the reagent injection process, indicating that no clogging occurred in the column during injection. Consequently, 96 h was set as the optimal loading time for chorionic villi sampling (CVS) system.

1 year ago

Dislodgeable arsenic Hexavalent chromium Chromated

Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is a pesticide that extends the service life of wood products by 20–40 years. CCA-C is the most common formulation for residential use and is comprised of 48% CrO3, 34% As2O5 and 19% CuO by weight, with final As concentrations being 2000–5000 mg/kg (AWPA, 1998). During treatment, CCA binds to wood fiber, leading to AMD 3465 of carcinogenic hexavalent chromium (CrVI) to the non-carcinogenic trivalent form (CrIII) (Radivojevic and Cooper, 2008). CCA-wood structures around homes include fences, decks, and staircases. Between 1995 and 2003, 11 million new single-family homes were built in the US, with 3.4 million having decks constructed from CCA-wood. It is estimated that more than 21 million homes in the US had decks made from CCA-wood in 2007. Use in new residential construction ended in 2004, but ~ 150 million pounds of CCA were used by the wood treatment industry in 2010, primarily for use on farms, commercial properties and for export (Shupe, 2012).

1 year ago

In the practical process for

in 2005 for the production of biodiesel [185]. Following their work, a great many of carbonaceous solid acid catalysts, which are generally prepared by the incomplete carbonization of natural organic matters and the subsequent sulfonation of the resulting amorphous carbons in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid, fuming sulphuric acid or chlorosulfonic acid [186], [187], [188], [189], [190], [191], [192], [193], [194] and [195], have been designed for the hydrolysis of cellulose.

1 year ago

Fig xA Membership functions for

Fig. 8. Membership functions for the number of vehicles (input variables).Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
The membership functions for the output value (green time duration) are three (Min, Medium, Max). Considering that PF562271 in current practice the minimum green time should be no shorter than 15 s and no longer than 90 s, the membership functions can be represented as in Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Membership functions for the green light duration (output variables). (For interpretation of the references to colour in bicarbonate ions figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
The second step of our approach is characterized by an inference mechanism through which the fuzzified information are correlated, following a linguistic approach based on the IF-THEN construct. Table 4 summarizes the rules that match the antecedents and consequents for the ith controller.